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What is photovoltaic (PV) technology and how does it work? PV materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy. A single PV device is known as a cell. An individual PV cell is usually small, typically producing about 1 or 2 watts of power . These cells are made of different semiconductor materials and are often less than the thickness of four human hairs. In order to withstand the outdoors for many years, cells are sandwiched between protective materials in a combination of glass and/or plastics.

To boost the power output of PV cells, they are connected together in chains to form larger units known as modules or panels. Modules can be used individually, or several can be connected to form arrays. One or more arrays is then connected to the electrical grid as part of a complete PV system. Because of this modular structure, PV systems can be built to meet almost any electric power need, small or large.

PV modules and arrays are just one part of a solar mounting system. Systems also include mounting structures that point panels toward the sun, along with the components that take the direct-current (DC) electricity produced by modules and convert it to the alternating-current (AC) electricity used to power all of the appliances in your home.

An important strength of photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is that PV conversion can be realised with a multitude of materials and device designs and can be used for many different applications and markets. This makes PV development and deployment very robust: if some approaches are not yet, no longer or not at all successful, there are always other options left. In fact, this is an important reason why the PV sector has been able to grow ever since its early days, more than half a century ago. At the same time, this multitude of options leads to confusion among stakeholders; some often-heard questions are: what is the best technology, should I wait until something better/cheaper/more efficient becomes available, will this product be obsolete soon? Although there are no easy answers to some of these questions, it is useful to put PV technology developments into perspective.

PV technologies and applicationssolar panel mounting system

Agricultural solar system

Commercial solar panel system

In this paper, the term “PV technologies” refers to a combination of an absorber material, a cell architecture in the form a wafer or a stack of thin layers, a module, and (where relevant) a system application. This is more specific than, for instance, simply “crystalline silicon” or “thin film”. Such a more detailed differentiation fits with the development stage of the PV sector, where different market segments require dedicated solutions for optimum technological, economic or societal PV performance. Examples are Building Integrated PV (BIPV), Infrastructure-Integrated PV (I2PV), floating PV systems, ground-based PV power plants, vehicle-integrated PV, and more.

Whereas the PV industry has been able to reduce manufacturing costs and selling prices spectacularly by, primarily, producing a huge quantity of cells and modules that are very similar, thus achieving optimum economies of scale, this now also starts limiting the application possibilities of PV. One could say that one size no longer fits all. The challenge is to broaden the product portfolio without increasing cost to unacceptable levels: additional manufacturing cost should not outweigh enhanced application value. Since the niche market of yesterday may develop into the multi-gigawatt market of tomorrow, this should in principle be possible if the initial hurdle of small volumes and high prices can be overcome. The PV sector as a whole has demonstrated this to be possible, critically aided by market incentives in Germany and some other countries. Broadening the product portfolio may be enabled further through the implementation of smart manufacturing concepts that combine the benefits of mass production with product customisation. An intermediate approach is to produce semi-manufactures in very large numbers and turning them into final products flexibly and on demand.

The development of photovoltaic and technology join forces to succeed

With the development, the accessories and other products of photovoltaic products have become more and more perfect, and can even be adapted to various scenarios.

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Looking back at the development of wafer-based silicon technology in the past few decades and what may happen in the future, different stages can be distinguished. It is recommended to use the term "generation" for these stages. The characteristic of Gen1 devices is that their efficiency is limited by the external (determined by defects and impurities) quality of the absorbing material: the quality of crystalline silicon (expressed as minority carrier lifetime and diffusion length). Therefore, the strategy to improve efficiency is focused on improving the quality of materials. The key example is the replacement of polysilicon with high-performance polysilicon or single crystal silicon, but the shift from p-type silicon to n-type silicon also falls into this category. If the quality of the material is no longer the main limiting factor, then the quality of the surface and interface will become the main limiting factor. This problem is then solved by introducing thin films for advanced surface passivation, such as silicon hydride nitride (SiNx:H) or aluminum oxide (Al2O3), by passivating contact structures, such as ultra-thin silicon oxide (SiO2)]) , Or by using a heterojunction instead of a homojunction. Of course, for the sake of clarity, Gen1 and Gen2 cannot be separated strictly as here. In many cases, performance enhancement strategies address all aspects of bulk material quality and surface and interface quality at the same time or even in one process step. An example of the latter is the use of silicon hydride nitride anti-reflective coatings to provide surface passivation, but also passivation of bulk defects through hydrogen diffusion. Most of the current research and development work on crystalline silicon falls into these Gen1 and Gen2 categories.


With development, the future is an era of natural energy, and photovoltaics are an indispensable and important link. The development of photovoltaics is inevitable.

As the Z-PURLIN of solar photovoltaic support has only developed in China in recent two years, some friends are not familiar with it and are not enough for it. The so-called solar photovoltaic support C-shaped steel, as the name suggests, is a part of the products provided by the solar support factory for solar energy companies. It is a special support designed to place, install and fix solar panels.

Z purlin sizes

There are generally two kinds of photovoltaic supports: carbon steel and aluminum alloy, while the carbon steel treated by hot galvanizing is carbon steel. The material of carbon steel is generally Q235 and Q345. The support is processed by cold bending, welding, hot galvanizing and other processes of strip steel coil. The thickness of the support is generally greater than 2mm (for some seaside, windy areas and areas, it is recommended that the thickness should not be less than 2.5mm, otherwise the connection point of sThe first step is discharging. Z-section steel is processed by hot coil cold bending, with thin wall, light weight, excellent section performance and high strength. Compared with traditional channel steel, the same strength can save 30% of materials. Generally, Z-section steel is automatically processed by Z-section steel forming machine. Z-section steel forming machine can automatically complete the forming process of Z-section steel according to the given size of Z-section steel. This involves cold rolling forming and hot rolling forming, so I won't say much here.

The second step is leveling. This needs the full assistance of the Z-beam forming machine and the supervision of the workers.

The third step is molding. At this stage, Z-section steel has a basic shape.

Then the fourth step is shaping. At this time, we can basically see the steel in the shape of "Z".

Then the fifth step is straightening. The shape alone is not enough. It has to be corrected slowly. The specification of Z-section steel must meet the national standard.

z purlin vs c purlin

Steel channel profiles C-beam type

Galvanized C-shaped steel, hot-dip galvanized cable tray C-shaped steel, glass slot C-shaped steel, glass curtain wall C-shaped steel, cable trough C-shaped steel, reinforced C-shaped steel, double hug C-shaped steel, single-sided C-shaped steel, manual forklift C-shaped steel, C-shaped steel with unequal sides, C-shaped steel with straight edge, C-shaped steel with beveled edge, C-shaped steel with inner curling edge, C-shaped steel with inner beveled edge, C-shaped steel of roof (wall) purlin, C-shaped steel of automobile profile, C-shaped steel of expressway column, solar support C-shaped steel (21-80 series), formwork support C-shaped steel, precision C-shaped steel for equipment, etc.

Our C PURLINS strut channel is alailable in depths of 25-150mm, and in a variaty of widths, ranging from 30-1000mm. The standard finish is electroplared zinc after fabrication. A variaty of other finishes available are including hot dipped galvanized after fabrication, pre-galvanized as well as multitude of colors in powder coating. The strut channel is also available in type 304 and 316 stainless steels for extremely corrosive enviroments.
     As for the fittings, a complement of accessories and brackets used for wire mesh installation are also provided. See our catalogue unpon request.

shaped steel purlins are divided into five specifications of 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 according to different heights. The length can be determined according to the engineering design, but considering the conditions of transportation and installation, the total length is generally not more than 12 meters.

Galvanized C-shaped steel has the advantages of adjustable size and high compressive strength. Although the section size of the section steel formed by cold bending is light, it is very suitable for the stress characteristics of the roof purlin, so that the mechanical performance of the steel can be fully utilized. A variety of accessories can be connected into different combinations, with beautiful appearance. The use of profiled steel purlins can reduce the weight of building roofs and reduce the amount of steel used in engineering, so it is called economical and efficient steel. It is an alternative to traditional steel such as angle steel, channel steel and steel pipe. A new building material for purlins.

Galvanized C-shaped steel is widely used in purlins and wall beams of steel structure buildings, and can also be combined into lightweight roof trusses, brackets and other building components. In addition, it can also be used for columns, beams and arms in mechanical light industry manufacturing.

Galvanized C-shaped steel, uniform zinc layer, smooth surface, strong adhesion, high dimensional accuracy, all surfaces are wrapped by zinc layer, surface zinc content is usually 120-275g/㎡, long service life, corrosion resistance and durability

C-section steel is widely used in the steel structure of purlins and wall beams, and can also be combined into building components such as light roof trusses and supports. It can also be used for columns, beams, arms, etc. in mechanical light industry manufacturing. C-section steel is formed by cold bending of hot-rolled steel plate. It has the characteristics of thin wall, light weight, excellent section performance and high strength. Compared with traditional channel steel, the same strength can save 30% of material.

Friends will ask, there are so many advantages and uses of c-section steel. The c-shaped steel belt has good performance and saves materials. What material is this made of? Is this galvanized carbon steel? C-section steel is usually painted with color steel. So what is pre-painted steel? The surface of the steel is coated with an organic coating. Cold-rolled strip and galvanized strip (electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized) serve as substrates for continuous plants. After surface pretreatment (degreasing, chemical treatment), one or more liquid coatings are carried out by roll coating method, and the plate obtained by baking and cooling is a coated steel plate. Since the coating can have different colors, coated steel is often called color coated steel. Since the coating is carried out before the steel plate is formed, it is called a pre-coated steel plate abroad. Color-coated steel plate has the advantages of beautiful appearance, bright colors, high strength, good corrosion resistance, and convenient processing and forming. It also allows users to reduce costs and pollution. This enables products made of organically coated steel sheets to have excellent practicality, decoration, workability and durability. It will be a strip material for c-section steel due to its many advantages.

With the development of my country's economic construction, environmental protection and green building materials are also developing rapidly. The production technology and process of Tianjin section steel have been greatly improved, and the current development situation is relatively good. Generally used for wall beams in buildings, mainly because it has great advantages, mainly reflected in the following aspects:

1. It is very light in weight. Since it is made of hot rolled steel sheet, it has the advantage of light weight. Compared with concrete, structural planning is reduced and the construction process is relatively simple.

2. It has good flexibility, scientific and reasonable internal structure and high stability. It can usually be used to accept large oscillations, and the ability to resist natural disasters is also relatively strong.

3. Save time and effort. In the welding process, materials can be significantly saved and a certain amount of manpower and material resources can be reduced. In the process of processing, it also has the advantages of easy processing, disassembly and recycling.


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