As early as 1839, the French scientist Becqurel discovered that light can create a potential difference between different parts of a semiconductor material. This phenomenon was later called the "photovoltaic effect", referred to as the "photovoltaic effect."
In 1954, American scientists Chabine and Pilson made a practical monocrystalline silicon solar cell for the first time in Bell Labs, USA, and produced a practical photovoltaic power generation technology that converts solar energy into electricity.
After the 1970s, with the development of modern industry, the global energy crisis and air pollution problems have become increasingly prominent. Traditional fuel energy is decreasing day by day, and the harm to the environment is becoming increasingly prominent. At the same time, about 2 billion people in the world are not getting Normal energy supply. At this time, the world has turned its attention to renewable energy, hoping that renewable energy can change the human energy structure and maintain long-term sustainable development.
Solar energy has become the focus of attention with its unique advantages. Abundant solar radiant energy is an important energy source, an inexhaustible, inexhaustible, non-polluting, cheap, and energy source that humans can freely use. The energy of solar energy reaching the ground every second is as high as 800,000 kWh. If 0.1% of the solar energy on the earth's surface is converted into electric energy, the conversion rate is 5%, and the annual power generation can reach 5.6×1012 kWh, equivalent to 40% of the world's energy consumption. Times. It is precisely because of these unique advantages of solar energy that after the 1980s, the types of solar cells continued to increase, the scope of application became wider, and the market scale gradually expanded.
After the 1990s, photovoltaic power generation developed rapidly. By 2006, more than 10 megawatt-scale photovoltaic power generation systems and 6 megawatt-scale connected photovoltaic power plants have been built in the world. The United States was the first country to develop a development plan for photovoltaic power generation. In 1997, the “Million Roof” project was proposed. Japan launched the new sunshine program in 1992.
By 2003, Japan's PV module production accounted for 50% of the world's total, and four of the world's top 10 manufacturers were in Japan. The German New Renewable Energy Law stipulates the on-grid price of photovoltaic power generation, which greatly promotes the development of the photovoltaic market and industry, making Germany the fastest growing country in the world after Japan. Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, Finland and other countries have also developed photovoltaic development plans, and invested heavily in technology development and accelerated industrialization.
The average annual growth rate of the world's PV modules in 1990-2005 was about 15%. In the late 1990s, the development was even faster. In 1999, PV module production reached 200 MW. Commodity battery efficiency has increased from 10% to 13% to 13% to 15%, production scale has grown from 1 to 5 MW/year to 5 to 25 MW/year, and is expanding to 50 MW or even 100 MW. The production cost of photovoltaic modules has dropped below $3/W.
In 2011, the global installed capacity of new PV was about 27.5GW, which was 52% higher than the 18.1GW of the previous year. The cumulative installed capacity in the world exceeded 67GW. Among the total installed capacity of nearly 28GW, nearly 20GW of systems are installed in Europe, but the growth rate is relatively slow. The Italian and German markets account for 55% of the global installed capacity, 7.6GW and 7.5GW respectively. In 2011, the market demand for photovoltaic industry in the Asia-Pacific region, represented by China, Japan and India, increased by 129% year-on-year, with installed capacity of 2.2GW, 1.1GW and 350MW respectively. In addition, in the increasingly mature North American market, the installed capacity is about 2.1GW, an increase of 84%.
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